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Trolls – Why the Internet is Lousy with Them

December 30, 2013

Online Safety for Professionals

Scammers hiding behind fake profiles remind me that the people I meet online are a lot like people I meet in “real life.”

It may seem at first that this is someone who is already part of my professional circle. It may look as if someone I know sent them my way.

These new contacts proffer relevant qualifications and titles, or claim membership in an organization I support. It may seem that this is someone who is harmless or good to know. Some seem to have work available for me. Too often, I discover that I have let a troll, spammer or faker in to my online professional life.

Some trolls flood social networking groups with deals on shoes, offers of easy credit, or weight-loss stuff. Others post defamatory, self-serving or misleading comments, under cover of a fake persona. Trolls are like vermin; if you let one in, they will invite their friends and soon your group is lousy with them. Groups members lose confidence in an administrator who lets scammers in to a “closed” group.

From the embarrassment of having been duped, to time wasted applying for fake jobs, scrambling to remove defamatory comments and spam — connecting with a fake person online can be one little click of trouble.

Opening the Door to Trouble

Taking a moment to examine a friend request, or request to join a closed group, can help to restrict trolls and their trolling tricks. This includes age-old techniques that our ancestors employed to assess the relative risks of letting strangers into their lives and homes.

Here are some suggestions for keeping your groups, pages, blogs and websites troll-free.

Step One: Trust Your Instincts
    The human brain is an amazing tool, honed over millennia. Our brains chronicle information our entire lives, storing details, making decisions, revising estimates, assessing risk. What we call “hunches” are actually the output of that database, continually analyzed below our consciousness.

    If you have any suspicion at all about a person online: act on it.

    Trust those hunches, those “spidey-sense tingles,” those seemingly baseless suspicions. Remember, if a deer in the forest hears a twig snap, it does not stand still, wondering whether it is overreacting, whether some creature’s feelings will be hurt if it runs. No. It bolts, sounding an alarm as it flees the perceived danger.

    When you get a request from someone you don’t know, ask yourself: who is this person, what do they want, and what are the risks if I let the wrong one in?

Step Two: Look for Clues
    Scammers are good at what they do, but like legitimate people, they are not perfect. They leave tell-tale signs, a sort of bread-crumb trail to follow, even if they are using fake names, online avatars, or “online handles.”

    Look with a critical eye at the information the person has provided. You would check the credentials of a door-to-door salesperson or service contractor. Treat your online home the same way.

    Signs of trouble include fake names and poor writing.

    Cultural variation aside, some trolls don’t try all that hard to come up with a fake name. “Lady Blue,” “Mr. Sunshine Karma,” “Cute Kittylol” – these are lazy trolls. Spelling and grammar mistakes can be a big clue that something is not right. Would a legal professional misspell “legislation”? Spell their own name different ways in one post? Get the name of their school wrong?

    Vague or silly job titles pique my curiosity. Following hunches, I confirm designations and names at governing bodies’ directories. I check to see if those letters after the name actually mean anything, and whether an affiliated organization is real.

    If those clues raise suspicions, take the next step and do a bit of sleuthing.

Step Three: Put on Your Detective Hat
    It’s amazing what you can find out, fast. Some things to check out:

       

    • Look at the profile. Are the details vague, irrelevant or non-existent? Was it created a few days ago? A recent profile is a red flag; trolls can create hundreds of profiles and use them up like “burner phones.” Check the profile photo. Does it look real? Is it a gender mismatch? Does it look like it came from a stock image service? Is it a random party-girl photo, pulled off the web?
    •  

    • Check the person’s friends and connections. Are these real people, whom you know?
      Are their connections suspiciously crafted to create an impression of trustworthiness? Is there any obvious reason for this new person to reach out to you, or does it come out of left field?
       

    • Google the name and any other information that is readily available. Does the person’s website resolve, with relevant content? Does this person or company appear in any directories? Is the phone number real?
    •  

    • Verify their claims. Does the person list an implausible level of experience? Suggest they are familiar with processes and procedures that are out of date or do not exist? Claim to have done work, that you know they have not? (Some people will claim to have worked on a project that included you and a few others, or to have been involved with an organization that you started!)
    •  

    • Google the email address. See if it exists, and whether it has been flagged by spam-watch sites. Does the email address differ from the profile name? (“Phil White” using the address “nancysalami@gmail.com”) Is the originating country a mismatch? (Canadian employer or school listed, but an email address that ends in country codes .in, .ro, ci – India, Romania, China)Read comments the person has made at other groups. Are they offensive or weird?
    •  

    • Look up the IP address for an emailed message. Has the address been flagged by spam-busting sites? Does it originate in another city or country than the one the sender claims? If you have a website, have you had suspicious messages from this address before? Do several people send messages from the same IP address, under different names?

       

      Step Four: Take Appropriate Steps
        Sometimes good people make careless mistakes. If it looks like mere sloppiness, or that the troll suspect may not understand the importance of using a real name and true information, you could just send an email explaining your position. A good person, a real person, will understand your caution and politely take steps to address your concerns.

        But if too many things don’t add up, if someone is making claims that are not true, if they try to strong-arm you into opening the internet door – keep your distance and sound the alarm. If you see the same fake name popping up in groups or pages, alert the administrators.

        It takes just a few minutes to check out a potential new contact, or invitation, but a troll in an online group, page or community will waste hours of your time, and make the site seem less reliable.

       

      More about online safety:

      http://www.privatis.com/

      Police information for protecting yourself online

       

      Elizabeth LeReverend is a paralegal in Ontario, where the profession is regulated. A legal writer, editor and researcher, Elizabeth publishes Paralegal SCOPE Magazine, the only source of news, features and information for Canadian paralegals.

      Visit: http://paralegalscope.com/

      © Copyright Elizabeth LeReverend and Paralegal SCOPE, 2013.

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Legal Talk – “Best Evidence Rule”

June 16, 2013

Can transcripts of recordings be introduced as evidence? Should a witness be allowed to describe what she saw in a video? What if the prosecutor can’t produce a certified copy of a drivers abstract?

These are matters that could be determined by applying the centuries-old “Best evidence rule.”

http://wp.me/p3ne8I-zu

Canadian Contract Law Quiz

December 8, 2012
Contract law lets parties to an agreement remedy their situations and restore them to the position they would have been in had the contract been fulfilled.

Contract law lets parties to an agreement remedy their situations and restore them to the position they would have been in had the contract been fulfilled.

Contracts affect our lives every day. If you use a website, buy a car, or agree to help out a friend, you may be entering into a legally binding contract.

Do you know your liquidated damages from your promissory estoppel?

Think you know what effect partial payment has on your right to collect an outstanding debt?

Understand which contracts your teenagers can bail out on?

Which legal remedies are available when someone backs out of a business arrangement?

Can you get out of a bad business deal?

contract-mary

Don’t let the fantasy characters in the scenarios fool you — this is a challenging quiz, but the answers are given after each question, along with a short explanation.

Disclaimer: This is not legal advice. If you have a legal question, ask a professional.

 

Ready to test your knowledge of Canadian contract law?

Canadian Contract Law Quiz

contract1

For more legal quizzes, and legal information, visit Paralegal SCOPE Magazine, the only source of news, information and feature articles for licensed paralegals in Ontario, Canada.

What’s the Difference Between? – Neil deGrasse Tyson / Mike Tyson

June 19, 2011

Neil DeGrasse Tyson

Neil deGrasse Tyson is an astrophysicist.

He can explain life, the universe and everything.

Mike Tyson

Mike Tyson is a disgraced former professional boxer, convicted rapist and wife-beater.

He can explain nothing.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Neil deGrasse and Mike Tyson are not related. Here are just a few of their differences:

Credentials

Neil deGrasse Tyson

Has a B.A. from Harvard and a PhD from Columbia. NASA’s Distinguished Public Service Medal is among deGrasse Tyson’s honors. He works at the Hayden Planetarium in his hometown of New York City.Easy-going enthusiasm for science and education makes deGrasse Tyson a popular guest speaker and panel member at forums, such as Beyond Belief and The Amazing Meeting.A supporter of the separation of religion and science, deGrasse Tyson has joined evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins in public presentations on that subject.

deGrasse Tyson’s quick rundown of “Stupid Design” flaws in the human body is one of the best science videos on YouTube.

Mike Tyson

Attended a reform school, until he was removed by his coach/guardian. Tyson declared bankruptcy in 2003 and says he lives paycheck-to-paycheck.Atom diagram

Popular Culture

Neil deGrasse Tyson

Hosts NOVA scienceNOW on PBS and is a frequent guest on current affairs programs such as Real Time with Bill Maher, The Daily Show and the Colbert Report.On Colbert, he explained Earth’s tides for the sake of Republican pundit Bill O’Reilly, who had declared such things beyond human understanding.deGrasse Tyson co-hosts a syndicated radio show with various comedians, called StarTalk.

Mike Tyson

A longtime favorite subject for biting satire and sarcasm on such shows as The Simpsons, MADtv and SNL, Tyson makes cameo appearances in low-brow movies, such as The Hangover. He told a reporter he took that bit-part to support his drug habit.Filmmaker James Toback released a sympathetic documentary, “Tyson,” in 2008.

Core Values

Neil deGrasse Tyson

Has no problem with people practicing religious beliefs, as long as they maintain boundaries.”If you knock on the door of my science classroom and tell me I’ve got to teach what you’re teaching in your Sunday school… that’s when we’re gonna fight.”

Mike Tyson

Although he converted to Islam while serving a prison sentence for rape, these days Mike Tyson says he is not sure “who would win” a fight to prove whose god is better — Jesus Christ or the Prophet Mohammad. “This is crazy, you know what I mean?”Atom

Career Highlights

Neil deGrasse Tyson

President Bush twice appointed deGrasse Tyson to commissions related to the U.S. space program, including “Moon, Mars and Beyond.” At the Hayden Planetarium, he defied tradition by removing Pluto from displays of the Solar System — garnering hate mail from kids in the process.When deGrasse Tyson goes ballistic, he’s talking about rockets.

Mike Tyson

Perhaps best known for being disqualified from a 1997 title rematch with Evander Holyfield. He bit off part of Holyfield’s ear.

Atom diagram

Famous Quotes

Neil deGrasse Tyson

On the coolest thing he has learned:
“We are all connected to each other biologically, to the earth chemically and to the rest of the universe atomically. That’s kinda cool! It’s not that we are better than the universe, we are part of the universe. We are in the universe and the universe is in us.”

Mike Tyson

On the reportage of his time in prison:
“You really have to look at the science of the situation. The best thing that happened to those guys — and they should stand on their mother’s shoulders and kiss my ass because I went to prison — or they would not be existing right now.”

Influences

Neil deGrasse Tyson

Astronomer Carl Sagan; Physics genius Sir Isaac Newton

Mike Tyson

Boxing coach Cus D’Amato
Atom diagram

Recreation Activities

Neil deGrasse Tyson
Latin ballroom dance
Mike Tyson
Pigeon racing

 

The Voice

Neil deGrasse Tyson

Rich, smooth, clear enunciation, flawless pronunciation, oozing with sincere masculine enthusiasm.

Mike Tyson

Sounds like a distracted child with a mouthful of marshmallows. Disjointed, bizarre.

Same Universe, Different Worlds

Tyson10 Questions for Neil deGrasse Tyson – Astrophysicist Tyson makes a faceMike Tyson talks about pigeons

Read more What’s the Difference?

Fake news article headline generator

May 29, 2011

How many times has this happened to you?

At a news site or “Answer” page, a headline grabs your attention. It sounds so tantalizing, so appealing, so need-to-know and quirky.

Click — and there it is. Lame, a badly done mash-up or rewrite, loaded with references to brand names, misspelled words, unattributed pseudo-quotes and slanted opinion. Nothing of what the headline teased.

Fake news articles are posted, sold, resold, rewritten and re-seeded with key words to the point of lunacy, repeatedly flung onto the Internet to lure money-making hits. It’s sort of like human trafficking, but with words instead of hookers.

Because I’m all about fairness, here’s a little cheat-sheet. These sneaky headline words get rotated often, so check back now and then to generate all-new fake headlines at a glance.

Simply combine the words in each column to generate an audience-grabbing headline.

Descriptor
Inspiring
Costly
Miraculous
Insider
Stunning
Five
Weird
Seductive
Seven
Hottest
Dumb
Biggest
Expert
Unbelievable
Recent
Dramatic
Greatest
Mean
Scary
Best
Racist
Top
Heroic
Hidden
Shocking
Ten
Most
Secret
Unique
Ivy-League
Ugly
Popular
Least
Extreme
Oddest
Strange
Small
Deadly
Green
Bizarre
Worst
Touching
New
Three
Catchy

Modifier
Out-of-this-world
Jaw-dropping
Viral
Essential
Must-see
Cool
Shameful
Affordable
Timely
Freaky
Wacky
Terrifying
Top-shelf
Mysterious
Moving
In-demand
Patriotic
Psychic
Traditional
Unbelievable
True
Must-know
Sensational
Healing
Must-have
Tragic
Free
Cheap
Latest
Incredible
Painless
Weird
Important
Easy
Socialist
Seductive
Outrageous
Wild
Misunderstood
Defying
Successful
Painful
Five-minute
New
Horrifying
Historic
Proven
Hot
Inspiring
Long-lasting
Amazing
Hidden
Fantastic
Subject
Leaders
Muslims
Downloads
Islands
Risks
Homes
Revelations
Charts
Pets
Beliefs
Plans
Successes
Schools
Threats
Foods
Tricks
Cities
Facts
Nutrition
Gifts
Strategies
Myths
Dates
Teams
Habits
Relationships
Churches
Breakthroughs
Recipes
Pipelines
Deals
Science
Bargains
Studies
Banks
Ways
Fails
Rappers
Secrets
Religions
Plans
Diets
Downloads
Rules
Celebrities
Indicators
Theories
Programs
Lies
Must-haves
Predictions
Styles
Mysteries
Clues
Moms
Kids
Planets
Degrees
Conjunction
Experts use for
That increase
Smothering your
That bring
Proven to help
That indicate
Coming to
To improve
That shrink your
Controlling your
Holding back
That cause
Killing your
To blame for
Producing
To avoid
Signaling
Marriages need for
Kids need for
To stop
Promising
Claiming
About
That point to
Weakening our
To reverse
For
Hidden in
That guarantee
Experts use for
Associated with
Essential to
You need for
Related to
To reduce
For
That could mean
That curse
Promoting
That could spell
That want your
That mean
Offering
Robbing you of
That show
To prevent
Predicting
From
Linked to
Essential to
That may cure
SEO noun:
Your brain
Israel
Health
The Illuminati
Careers
Videos
Excess weight
Savings
Tips
Scandal
Gifts
Heros
Detox
Rome
Workouts
Debt
Washington
Aliens
Family
Cleansing
Prayer
Luck
Demons
Hollywood
Vacations
Addiction
Terrorism
Jobs
Dating
Angels
Wall Street
Values
Coffee
Fashion
Seawater
Porn
Immigration
Church
Mortgages
Discoveries
Creation
NFL
School
Pizza
The red carpet
Mistakes
Kids
Retirement
Guilt
Wealth
Fertility
Asteroids
Homes
Fast food
Success
Evolution
Belly Fat
Investments
Gun Control
Motherhood

Secret Lives Exposed: Weird Winter Habits at the Leslie Street Spit

April 24, 2011

It’s a great time to be alive, Spring.

With the Earth’s wobble tilting us closer to the Sun (here in the Northern Hemisphere), the air and ground begin to warm.

Humans and other things shed our winter coats at midday, mimic the Earth by lifting our faces to the sun, and begin to look at our snow-free homes in a new light, making our little plans for the hay-days of full summer.

Each spring, as I kick about at the soil and poke under rocks down at the Leslie Street Spit (now officially Tommy Thompson Park), I am yet amazed to see the little living things under my feet.

The Dead of Winter?

In my sojourns to the Leslie Street Spit, I witness the renewed-life bonanza begin long before we humans label it Spring.

Mid-winter in this unnatural nature area looks dead at a quick glance. But nudge over a driftwood log in the chill of March and you just may see a spider come scrabbling out. Brush the last thin snow from the rocks, to discover fire ants angered by the intrusion.

Come February, birds start to check out mates and nest-sites. Groggy rodents stumble about like hung-over students on a Sunday morning, before grumbling back to their cosy dens. Perhaps the February mating of the coyotes woke them up.

By this time of year though, the ground and trees begin to steadily seethe with increasing life, a visual and auditory overture to the rhapsody of high summer.

Secret Survival

Every spring I ask myself: where have they been all winter? Did these bugs and critters really survive in situ, or do they migrate back early? Is the Leslie Spit like some land-locked biblical ark, with creatures two-by-two staying over to repopulate a frozen world?

When it comes to Winter, Toronto critters have four basic options: die, migrate, tough it out, or sleep it off.

Those fair-weather friends, the birds, skedaddle out of here before the first snowflakes fly. Not all of them, mind you; more geese stay over in Toronto with each passing Climate-Change year. Chickadees, some wrens, owls, cardinals, jays and mourning doves are among the birds we can see and hear over the winter.

Which species winter-over is determined mainly by whether the stuff they eat stays over too. Birds that eat insects have to move on; those that dive for fish remain so long as there is open water; and birds that eat freeze-dried berries or ripened seed pods can stay the whole season.

Adapt or Die

Winter survival comes down to not freezing, or at least, not suffering permanent damage from freezing.

Some animals fatten up for the winter, find a good hiding spot, and sleep through the whole winter with their body processes slowed down. That’s called “diapause.” Some insects that stay here over the winter, including the mantis, are good at that.

“Torpor” means the animal wakes up now and then, has a quick snack, then goes back to sleep for a long time. Skunks are good examples. Beavers are somewhere in between, having stored winter food in their lodges and only venturing out on mild winter days in search of the aspen they adore.

Hibernate, Insulate, Cohabitate

Extra padding, special body fat, insulating fur and collective warming techniques are employed by lots of animals down at the Spit.

Many creatures — even some birds — live collectively in small dens, holes in trees or any other little unoccupied space, to help warm each other.

A kind of heat-exchange artery system keeps some winter birds’ extremities from freezing. It’s the kind of adaptation scientists look for, to identify species’ habitats and evolutionary journey.

Small mammals, including brown bats, and rodents, such as mice and voles, snuggle up in their little dens for long winter naps when they aren’t scrounging around for an occasional meal. Snow actually helps insulate their winter quarters; mice scurry through under-snow tunnels, between nests and food stores.

Two critters’ winter habits in particular once puzzled me: ants and snakes. Just where the heck did they go? Turns out, their winter habits are just the tip of the iceberg of admirable winter survival techniques.

Cold-blooded killers

One thing ants and snakes have in common is also a clue to their winter survival. Ants and snakes are cold-blooded, just like amphibians, including frogs. Without a way to warm their own bodies, they rely on radiant heat from the sun and object it heats, to keep from freezing themselves.

I’m not a big fan of fire ants, which live in enormous colonies down at the Leslie Spit. Invaders from the southern U.S., they’ve settled in nicely. I’ve been bit many times by these vicious red insects. Their stings feels like a needle jab and leaves burning splotches that last for days.

But I can’t help admiring their lifestyle. They build large mounds in soggy ground that, down at the Spit anyway, can tower five feet or more, roomy enough to accommodate dens for foxes, gestating coyotes, gophers and skunks.

These mounds represent just the head of the ants’ homes. Below is where the real ant action is, a maze of chambers and tunnels that can house a massive colony of tens of thousands.

Northern ant colonies seal up their nests for the winter and move deep underground, below the frost mark. These underground cities provide temperature-controlled comfort, exploiting the geothermal process.

Chemistry to the Rescue

Other Leslie Spit ants get through the winter thanks to some cool chemistry. According to Edward O. Wilson, leading ant expert, chemistry basically rules the world of ants. Just like some fish and other animals, ants can produce chemicals (cryoprotectants) in their bodies that act like antifreeze.

Believe it or not, snakes use the same winter survival techniques as ants. Brace yourself if you’re squeamish.

The Leslie Street Spit is home to a rare mutation called the Black Garter Snake. Just like their neighbours, the fire ants, these snakes burrow down deep into the soil to find a winter den in that geothermal layer that provides constant bearable temperatures.

There, the snakes — hundreds, maybe thousands of them — wrap themselves around each other to conserve warmth, forming a gigantic snake ball. Seriously. It’s called a hibernaculum.

When I’m walking along the Spit in winter, I try not to think of the giant ball of gently writhing black snakes, close-eyed, snug in the dark beneath me somewhere.

Toads and frogs can make their way down to the warm-air currents below the frost line, too. Some types take a deep breath and shimmy down into the muck underneath water deep enough that it won’t freeze. In spring, they suck in that air bubble and swim back up.

Some amphibians and reptiles burrow deep into fallen trees, wood piles and leaves and slow all their body processes down to a near-death state, using their cryoprotectant so they don’t freeze solid.

Natural Selection at Work

Bugs mostly die off and don’t have to endure the winter at the Spit with their slumbering buddies. Their eggs are safely hidden away in trees, under rocks and leaves, and even within that deep-soil even-temperature zone.

One pretty cool exception is the goldenrod gall fly, with a two-part plan for winter survival. It may not look like much, but close study of the the gall fly’s life cycle has furthered the theory of natural selection. In addition to making its own antifreeze, the gall fly creates a problem, then exploits that problem for its own gain.

The gall fly lays eggs on the stem of a goldenrod plant in late summer. The plant produces a “gall,” or swelling, in reaction to the eggs which, when they become larvae, chew away inside the gall, to create a winter home complete with an escape tunnel for the spring, when it flies off in search of a mate.

It’s Called a “Cycle” for a Reason

By May, the full complement of critters will have repopulated my favourite urban park. Whether they woke up, climbed up, walked back, winged over, squeezed out, hatched or morphed, each has its purpose and place.

When the grasshoppers hop to, the garter snakes slither up to eat. When the snakes come out, the owls and red-shouldered hawks are happy. And when the hawks are happy, I’m happy.

Note: The Leslie Street Spit is a five-kilometer-long stretch of land that juts into Lake Ontario south of the Toronto mainland.

Built from clean fill and construction waste, it was created as a breakwater. Nature took over, however, and over the last 60 years or so, the Spit has evolved into a neat, unique, ecologically diverse urban park.

Because it is not well-travelled, the Leslie Street Spit provides one of the few places to be alone and safe outdoors in this metropolis. It offers amazing views of downtown, Great Lakes freighters, rare birds, coyotes, monarch butterflies, uncommon snakes, beavers, minks, herons and egrets. Among others.

Leslie Spit Sunset

Leslie Spit Sunset

Related posts:
Snakes and Mother Bears

What’s the Difference Between Neil deGrasse Tyson / Mike Tyson?

Canada Day Beaver Quiz

Legal Book Reviews: Quirky, Concise, Provocative

April 23, 2014

giroux-2012-edition

Provincial Offences Act

Paralegal SCOPE Magazine contributor Paralegal Suzanne Bemrose, of Bellum Legal, reviews “Provincial Offences Act: Ontario Court of Justice Selected Short Form Wordings, Set Fines and Ministry of Transportation CVOR Points,” by James Giroux.

This reference book includes several sections that refer to more than one Act. The book includes a Victim Surcharge Table.

Traffic-cop-CalebrwMeet Mr. Loophole

Paralegal Reena Basser, B.A., M.A., is a professor at Humber and Seneca colleges, in their legal programs. She reviews a book written by “Mr. Loophole,” with courtroom strategies that are particularly relevant for Provincial Offences work. Freeman’s book explains how he became a traffic go-to guy for well-known figures and celebrities, including sports stars such as David Beckham.

Legal Movies Quiz

February 15, 2013

 

Image

Legal issues are a tried-and-true theme for movies.

 

These 30 questions test your knowledge of characters, legal issues, settings and plot twists in 30 movies that are related to the law. 

Good luck!

 

http://www.quizrevolution.com/ch/a173168/go 

For more legal quizzes, and legal information, visit Paralegal SCOPE Magazine, the only source of news, information and feature articles for licensed paralegals in Ontario, Canada.

Fighting Words

January 20, 2013

Soldier Silhouette

This quiz tests your knowledge of the “words of war.”

From battles, to famous warriors, armaments, equipment and the rules of engagement, Fighting Words is certain to test your mettle. There are 20 questions, each with one best answer and a short explanation.

 

http://www.quizrevolution.com/ch/a171392/go/fighting_words

For more legal quizzes, and legal information, visit Paralegal SCOPE Magazine, the only source of news, information and feature articles for licensed paralegals in Ontario, Canada.

Simple Contract Quiz

December 9, 2012
Can the Bears get their money back if the work is not done properly?

Can the Bears get their money back if the work is not done properly?

What happens if Jack doesn’t water Jill’s lawn?

Should singing dwarfs be able to carry a tune?

Is a birdhouse a good substitute for watering a lawn?

Check your contract prowess with this short quiz about contracts and contract law in Canada.

http://www.quizrevolution.com/ch/a170495/go/easy_contract_quiz

If you did well with the simple quiz, try this more-challenging related content:

Canadian Contract Law Quiz

For more legal quizzes, and legal information, visit Paralegal SCOPE Magazine, the only source of news, information and feature articles for licensed paralegals in Ontario, Canada.